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APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B messenger-RNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G) is a single-strand DNA deaminase that inhibits the replication of HIV-1 and other retroviruses. Both APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F specifically target HIV-1 through cytidine de-aminase activities. Viral infectivity factor (Vif), from HIV, protein circumvents these actions through degradation. The structure of these proteins, and other related proteins, will help promote understanding of their functions and allow for targeted design of new therapies in HIV infection.


Chen KM, Martemyanova N, Lu Y, Shindo K, Matsuo H, Harris RS. "Extensive mutagenesis experiments corroborate a structural model for the DNA deaminase domain of APOBEC3G." FEBS letters 581.24 (2007):4761-4766.

Chen KM, Harjes E, Gross PJ, Fahmy A, Lu Y, Shindo K, Harris RS, Matsuo H. "Structure of the DNA deaminase domain of the HIV-1 restriction factor APOBEC3G." Nature 452.7183 (2008):116-119.

Stenglein MD, Matsuo H, Harris RS. (2008) “Two regions within the amino-terminal half of APOBEC3G cooperate to determine cytoplasmic localization”J Virol.published online ahead of print on 30 July 2008

Harjes E, Gross PJ, Chen KM, Lu Y, Shindo K, Nowarski R, Gross JD, Kotler M, Harris RS, Matsuo H.. "An extended structure of the APOBEC3G catalytic domain suggests a unique holoenzyme model." Journal of Molecular Biology 389.5 (2009):819-832.

“Crystal structure of the APOBEC3G catalytic domain reveals potential oligomerization interfaces. Structure.”(2010)Jan 13;18(1):28-38. PubMed PMID: 20152150; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2913127.

Albin JS, LaRue RS, Weaver JA, Brown WL, Shindo K, Harjes E, Matsuo H, Harris RS. “A single amino acid in human APOBEC3F alters susceptibility to HIV-1 Vif.”J Biol Chem. 2010 Dec 24;285(52):40785-92. Epub (2010)Oct 22. PubMed PMID: 20971849; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3003379.

Dang Y, Abudu A, Son S, Harjes E, Spearman P, Matsuo H, Zheng YH. “Identification of a single amino acid required for APOBEC3 antiretroviral cytidine deaminase activity.”Journal ofVirology. 2011 Jun;85(11):5691-5. Epub (2011)Mar 23. PubMed PMID: 21430060; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3094948.

FukunishiY, Hongo S, XLintuluoto M and Matsuo H. “Free energy profile of APOBEC3G protein calculated by a molecular dynamics simulation” Biology, special issue: Structural and Molecular Biology of HIV, in press