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Dr. Maria Spivak

My primary research focus is on honey bees, ranging from basic studies on mechanisms of social behaviors to applied studies on bee breeding and health. We are currently investigating the role of propolis, a complex resin that honey bees collect from some trees, as a mechanism of colony-level social immunity. Propolis is widely known for its diverse antimicrobial properties and its value as a human medicine. We also are studying landscape effects on honey bee nutrition and immune system functioning, and on native bee abundance and diversity. Please visit our web site for more information: