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For a complete list see my Google Scholar profile


Schmolke A, Roy C, Brain R, Forbes VE. 2018. Adapting population models for application in pesticide risk assessment: a case study with Mead’s milkweed. Environ Toxicol Chem. 37: 2235-2245.

Schmolke A, Brain R, Thorbek P, Perkins D, Forbes VE. 2018. Assessing and mitigating population-level effects of 3 herbicides to a threatened plant: Application of a species-specific population model of Boltonia decurrens. Environ Toxicol Chem. 37: 1545-1555.

Galic N, Sullivan L, Grimm V, Forbes VE. 2018. When things don’t add up: quantifying impacts of multiple stressors from individual metabolism to ecosystem processing. Ecol Lett. 21: 568-577.

Selck H, Forbes VE. 2018. Current risk assessment frameworks misjudge risks of hydrophobic chemicals. Environ Sci Technol. 52: 1690-1692.

Chapman P, Brain R, Belden J, Forbes VE, Mebane C, Hoke RA, Ankley G, Solomon K. 2018. Collaborative research among academia, business, and government. Integr Environ Assess Manag. 14: 152-154.


Schmolke A, Kapo K, Rueda-Cediel P, Thorbek P, Brain R, Forbes VE. 2017. Developing population models: a systematic approach for pesticide risk assessment using herbaceous plants as an example. Sci Total Environ 599-600:1929-1938.

Forbes VE, Salice CJ, Birnir B, Bruins RJF, Calow P, Ducrot V, Galic N, Garber K, Harvey BC, Jager H, Kanarek A, Pastorok R, Railsback SF, Rebarber R, Thorbek P. 2017. A framework for predicting impacts on ecosystem services from (sub)organismal responses to chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem 36: 845-859.

DeLong JP, Brassil CE, Erickson EK, Forbes VE, Moriyama EN, Riekhof WR. 2017. Dynamic thermal reaction norms and body size oscillations challenge explanations of the temperature-size rule. Ecol Evol Biol 18: 293-303.

Schmolke A, Brain R, Thorbek P, Perkins D, Forbes VE. 2017. Population modeling for pesticide risk assessment of threatened species – a case study of a terrestrial plant, Boltonia decurrens. Environ Toxicol Chem 36: 480-491.

Galic N, Grimm V, Forbes VE. 2017. Impaired ecosystem process despite little effects on populations: modeling combined effects of warming and toxicants. Global Change Biol doi: 10.1111/gcb.13581.

Galic N, Forbes VE. 2017. The role of Dynamic Energy Budget theory in predictive modeling of stressor impacts on ecological systems. Comment on: Physics of metabolic organization. Physics of Life Reviews 20: 43-45.

Haak DM, Fath BD, Forbes VE, Martin DR, Pope KL. 2017. Coupling ecological and social network models to assess “transmission” and “contagion” of an aquatic invasive species. J Environ Manage 190: 243-251.

Forbes VE, Thorbek P, Garber K. 2017. Ecological effect models for assessing the risks of pesticides: ongoing developments in the United States and European Union. SETAC Globe 18:4.


Forbes VE, Galic N, Schmolke A, Vavra J, Pastorok R, Thorbek P. 2016. Assessing the risks of pesticides to threatened and endangered species using population modeling: a review and recommendations for future work. Environ Toxicol Chem. 35: 1904-1913. [Recipient of ET & C’s Exceptional Paper Award]

Forbes VE, Hall T, Suter G, Calow P, Cormier S, Brain R, Staveley J, Ortego L, Ågerstrand M, Elliott K. 2016. Bias is creeping into the science behind risk assessments and undermining its use and credibility – A Perspectives Column. Environ Toxicol Chem. 35: 1068 – 1074.

Forbes VE, Galic N. 2016. Next generation ecological risk assessment: predicting risk from molecular initiation to ecosystem service delivery. Environ Internat. 91: 215-219.

DeLong J, Forbes V, Galic N, Gilbert JP, Laport R, Phillips J, Vavra J. 2016. How fast is fast? Eco-evolutionary dynamics and rates of change in populations and phenotypes. Ecol Evol. 6: 573–581. 

Galic N, Forbes VE. 2016. Effects of temperature on the performance of freshwater amphipod shredders. Hydrobiologia DOI 10.1007/s10750-016-2901-9.


Reed M, Alvarez T, Chelinho S, Forbes VE, Johnston ASA, Meli M, Voss F, Pastorok R. 2015. A risk assessment example for soil invertebrates using spatially explicit agent-based models (ABMs). Integr Environ Assess Manag 12:58-66.

Hommen U, Forbes VE, Grimm V, Preuss T, Thorbek P, Ducrot V. 2015. How to use mechanistic effect models in risk assessment of pesticides: Case studies and recommendations from the SETAC workshop MODELINK. Integr Environ Assess Manag 12: 21-31.

Forbes VE, Brain R, Edwards D, Galic N, Hall T, Honegger J, Meyer C, Moore DRJ, Nacci D, Pastorok R, Preuss TG, Railsback SF, Salice C, Sibly RM, Tenhumberg B, Thorbek P, Wang M. 2015. Assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species using population models. Integr Environ Assess Manag 11: 348 – 354.

Son J, Vavra J, Li Y, Seymour M, Forbes VE. 2015. Interactions between suspension characteristics and physicochemical properties of silver and copper oxide nanoparticles: A case study for optimizing nanoparticle stock suspensions using a central composite design. Chemosphere 124: 136-142.

Ramskov T, Forbes VE, Gilliland D, Selck H. 2015. Accumulation and effects of sediment-associated silver nanoparticles to sediment‐dwelling invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol 166: 96-105.

Ramskov T, Croteau, M, Forbes VE, Selck H. 2015. Biokinetics of different-shaped copper oxide nanoparticles in the freshwater gastropod, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Aquat Tox 163: 71-80.

Dai L, Banta G, Selck H, Forbes VE. 2015. Influence of copper oxide nanoparticle form and shape on toxicity and bioaccumulation in the deposit feeder, Capitella teleta. Mar Environ Res 111: 99-106.

Palmqvist A, Baker L, Forbes VE, Gergs A, von der Kammer F, Luoma S, Lützhøft HCH, Salinas E, Sorensen M, Steevens J. 2015. Nanomaterial environmental risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 11: 333-335.

Son J, Vavra J, Forbes VE. 2015. Effects of water quality parameters on agglomeration and dissolution of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs). Sci Total Environ 521-522: 183-190.

Forbes VE. 2015. The real trouble with risk assessment. BioScience 65: 227.


Hunka A, Palmqvist A, Forbes VE. 2014. Effective environmental risk communication - success stories or urban legends? Integr Environ Assess Manag 11: 173-174.

Goto D, Hamel MJ, Hammen JJ, Rugg ML, Pegg MA, Forbes VE. 2014. Flow-driven recruitment dynamics of large riverine fish: long-term population sustainability in a regulated system. Ecol Model. 296: 79-92.

Ramskov T, Selck H, Banta G, Misra SK, Berhanu D, Valsami-Jones E, Forbes VE. 2014. Bioaccumulation and effects of different-shaped copper oxide nanoparticles in the deposit-feeding snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Environ Toxicol Chem. 33: 1976-1987.

Cong Y, Banta GT, Selck H, Berhanu D, Valsami-Jones E, Forbes VE. 2014. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated silver nanoparticles in the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor. Aquat Toxicol. 156: 106-115.

Bradshaw C, Kapustka L, Barnthouse L, Brown J, Ciffroy P, Forbes V, Geras’kin S, Kautsky U, Bréchignac F. 2014. Using an ecosystem approach to complement protection schemes based on organism-level endpoints. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 136: 98-104.

Meli M, Palmqvist A, Forbes VE. 2014. Implications of interacting microscale habitat heterogeneity and disturbance events on Folsomia candida (Collembola) population dynamics: a modelling approach. Environ Toxicol Chem. 33: 1508-1516.

Galic N, Forbes VE. 2014. Ecological models in ecotoxicology and ecological risk assessment: An introduction to the special section. Environ Toxicol Chem. 33: 1446-1448.

Hunka A, Meli M, Palmqvist A, Thorbek P, Forbes VE. 2014. Ecological risk assessment of pesticides in the EU: What factors and groups influence policy changes? Journal of Risk Research

Hamda N, Forbes VE, Stark J, Laskowski R. 2014. Stochastic density dependent matrix model for extrapolating individual-level effects of chemicals to the population: Case study on effects of Cd on Folsomia candida. Ecol Model. 280: 53-64.

Meli M, Palmqvist A, Forbes VE, Groeneveld J, Grimm V. 2014. Two pairs of eyes are better than one: Combining individual-based and matrix models for ecological risk assessment of chemicals. Ecol Model. 280: 40-52.

Calow P, Forbes VE. 2014. Ecotoxicology. In: eLS 2014, John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Chichester [DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0003245.pub2] Ecotoxicology


Calow P, Forbes VE. 2013. Making the relationship between risk assessment and risk management more intimate. Environ Sci Technol.47: 8095-8096.

Forbes VE, Calow P. 2013. Developing predictive systems models to address complexity and relevance for ecological risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag. 9: e75-e80.

Forbes VE, Calow P. 2013. Use of the ecosystem services concept in ecological risk assessment of chemicals. Integr Environ Assess Manag. 9: 269-275.

Pedersen S, Palmqvist A, Thorbek P, Hamer M, Forbes VE. 2013. Pairing behavior and reproduction in Hyalella azteca as sensitive endpoints for detecting long-term consequences of pesticide pulses. Aquat Toxicol. 144: 59-65.

Hunka A, Palmqvist A, Thorbek P, Forbes VE. 2013. Risk communication discourse among ecological risk assessment professionals and its implications for communication with non-experts. Integr Environ Assess Manag. DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1426.

Dai L, Syberg K, Banta G, Selck H, Forbes VE. 2013. Effects, uptake and depuration kinetics of silver- and copper oxide nanoparticles in a marine deposit feeder, Macoma balthica. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 1: 760-767.

Meli M, Auclerc A, Palmqvist A, Forbes VE, Grimm V. 2013 Population-level consequences of spatially heterogeneous exposure to heavy metals in soil: an individual-based model of springtails. Ecol Model 250: 338-351.

Hunka A, Meli M, Thit A, Palmqvist A, Thorbek P, Forbes VE. 2013. Stakeholders’ perspectives on ecological modeling in environmental risk assessment of pesticides – challenges and opportunities. Risk Analysis. 33: 68-79.

Pang C, Selck H, Banta GT, Misra SK, Berhanu D, Dybowska A, Valsami-Jones E, Forbes VE. 2013. Bioaccumulation, toxicokinetics, and effects of copper from sediment spiked with aqueous Cu, nano-CuO or micro-CuO in the deposit-feeding snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Environ Toxicol Chem. 32: a comparison of Cu added in aqueous form or as nano- and micro-CuO particles. Aquat Toxicol 106-107: 114-122.